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How the cellular network works? – GSM Architecture | 1G & 2G | Arun

How the cellular network works? – GSM Architecture | 1G & 2G | Arun

In today’s world, everyone uses mobile phones and each call gets connected within a second Does anyone know about the process
behind a each and every call? Let’s see in this video Initially, it was 1G 1G is a first generation cellular
standard called by different names like AMPS, MTS and IMTS It was introduced in 1980s and it supports only voice services over limited range It employs analog modulation technique with FDMA 1G handsets were bulkier with
the antenna on top of device The cons of 1g are replaced by GSM Global System for Mobile Communication GSM is a second generation cellular standard and developed in 1991 by European telecommunications to support voice and data services It uses digital modulation with TDMA While 2g handsets were cheaper and less in size GSM was the first generation to introduce a sim cards GSM had certain specifications like Uplink, downlink, transfer rate, etc to carry information Mainly, it has GMSK digital modulation
and TDMA access method GSM data speed was approximately
14.4 kilobytes per second GSM uses a different frequency bands in different regions In India, it was 900 MHz and 1800 MHz GSM architecture is the basic
architecture in cellular network It contains four subsystems Mobile station, Base station subsystem, Network switching subsystem,
Operation support subsystem Here it is the representation of
each subsystem in architecture It is noticed that each subsystem
contain some components Let’s discuss it detailly First of all is mobile station It has two components. Mobile equipment.. It is the hardware used by a
subscriber to access network identified by IMEI number
(International Mobile Equipment Identity) SIM- Subscriber Identity Module It is a detachable smart card containing a IMSI number International Mobile Subscriber Identity It also allows user to send and receive calls Second subsystem is a base station subsystem It also contains two components Based transceiver system. It is nothing but, Mobile Towers It sends and receives signals from mobile phones And performs various functions like encoding, multiplexing, modulation and encryption Then, Base station controller It controls group of BTSs It allocates radio channels and handover from one BTS to another The third sub system is a network switching subsystem And it contains five components The main element is a mobile switching center It is the heart of GSM It manages mobile services like
registration, authentication, etc and and performs call routing, call setup and call switching It communicates with other NSS components like HLR, VLR, etc The second element is a home location register It is a central master database of subscribers IMSI, current location and information Third one is visitor location register It is a subset of HLR and holds local database of users currently visiting location in other domain If the user lives in Chennai, then it is his home network and HLR works here When he travels to Delhi, then it is his visiting network and VLR starts working The fourth one is a Equipment Identity register It is also a database that contains all valid
handsets on network using IMEI number It marks IMEI as a invalid if handset is stolen Fifth element is authentication center A protected database that has copy of IMSI number for authentication and encryption task It protects from a different types of frauds on network The last subsystem is Operation support subsystem It is connected to all equipments in the
switching system on GSM network It provides administration and commercial operation and manages security & operation Performs network configuration and maintenance task Now, let’s view the GSM structure again Mobile station sends a signal to
BSS through air interface The BSS routes that the signal to an NSS which performs various tasks as discussed earlier BSS and NSS are supported by OSS finally Finally, the signal from NSS is sent to external wired network like PSDN, ISDN,etc The GSM system can be a simplified as shown The user calls a certain number using mobiles The signal is received by the mobile tower which is BTS Then, it is routed to be MSC for allocating the radio channel and reaches MSC for tracking location under the degree Finally, the signal is transferred to a telephone network At the receiver side, the signal
transmission occurs in reverse direction Thanks for watching. This is Arun, signing off!

23 comments found

  1. Bro unga videos lam therikka vudreenga bro…. Ur voice nice๐Ÿ˜๐Ÿ˜ bro…. Keep the same stuff … Upload extra videos for us bro…

  2. Very effectively and quickly explained ๐Ÿ‘ŒโœŒ
    Actually helpful to understand whole architecture at the last movement….

  3. Please little slow, if person knows this concept before then it's ok speed, if like me new nothing know about its difficult to understand in this fast

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