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City Directories: No Town Too Small No Clue Too Little

City Directories: No Town Too Small No Clue Too Little

Hello everybody and welcome to another edition of the MyHeritage one-day seminar from our headquarters here in Israel, with a live audience. And thank you, all of you, for coming from all over the world, either live or recorded. It’s really a pleasure for me to welcome you to this session. Right now, I will start by introduce our lecturer, my very good friend Thomas MacEntee. He is a genealogy professional based in the US, the United States, but he is also a blogger, an educator, author, social media. Thomas, how do you have time to do all this? It’s all smoke and mirrors. Okay. It’s all free posting on a Sunday afternoon. (laughs) So yes, Thomas knows how to do all the tricks and the magic on the internet and he manage a few websites, just to mention two of them: High Definition Genealogy and Genealogy Bargains. When he actually tries, I’m pretty sure he manages to teach, inspire, investigate and serve as a curator and go-to guy for concept nurturing and inspiration. Nurturing. Nurturing! Oh! Sorry! Naturing is something else.
Is something else. But it involves–
Do you do that? Yeah, you do that as well? No (laughs) I don’t do them any less, I don’t do them anymore. But I’m pretty sure that definitely you are an inspiration and a source of knowledge for a lot of people around the world and I find you also in genealogy conference and I enjoy always hearing your lecture. So, today, Thomas is going to talk to us about right now city directories. Directories! You see, that’s what happened when you come from South America! No acentos, yeah. You know what Thomas? It’s all yours. Thank you, thank you. Thank you, thank you, and thanks Daniel. I’m actually going to hold the mic up, they said that there’s been a little bit of static so if you see me doing this, it’s not like I’m toking on a cigarette or something, you know. I’m just speaking into the microphone here. So, let’s talk about city directories. I don’t know if you’ve used them. They’re prevalent in the UK, they’re prevalent in the US, I know that major cities have had them but also small, small towns have had these directories. Like yellow pages before the telephone. And that was important. Now in terms of the history, at least in the United States, 1748 Philadelphia was the first city directory. Now where I’m from in Chicago, we were incorporated in 1838 and the first one is 1841. And I’ve seen one of the originals at the Newberry Library in Chicago and so they often would come out yearly. I grew up in a small town in the Catskills, where we, I was born in ’62, so we didn’t have a directory, it was the phone directory. But my Mother said that the town used to have a directory that they printed every year, in the ’40s and ’50s. And so, sometimes they’re seen as business guides. So it’s not just a city directory. So they come under different names and things like that. So let’s go ahead and look at what, well basically it predates the telephone. Once the telephone and the telephone directory came in, you’ll find that city directories starting in the ’20s and ’30s tended to disappear, okay. If you’ve ever looked at the New York Public Library, the Milstein collection online, they have, guess what? They have the 1940 phone directories from New York City. And what they do now, is they allow you to connect those phone numbers with people on the 1940 US census. It’s really to have it all automated, and it’s fun to do. Now, I’m looking at that cord board. I can tell you, I was one of the last people, I did, I worked for New York Telephone in high school. I operated the last cord board in all of New York state in 1979. And it was totally different, but again, once phones came in, you did see a decrease in city directories, so. There’s more to it than meets the eye and you’ve got to build the skill set on how to decipher all the little different codes. So there’re some that have a lot of codes, some you wouldn’t even know what the codes are or what they mean. So it is sometimes as I said, called the city and business directory, so don’t just search for city directory. Search for city and business directory, or business directory with the name of the town or city. So, these are the things that you’ll often find. The name of the person. Then right after that, of course, it’s always male dominated, so it’s men first. Unless the woman was on her own, and head of household. It would say marital status, which is important because, what’s the benefit of the city directory? Think about it. In between census years. It puts your ancestor at a specific date and place, especially in the US, we’ve lost the 1890 Federal Census. So we’ve got a gap there. So if I find in the 1897 census that my great grandmother who’s listed now is a widow, I have a rough idea, comparing versions of directories, when my great grandfather may have died. There’s a clue in there. So, occupation. It often would list the occupation and the employer. You will see EMP period, with the name of the employer. The address. So sometimes it’ll say employer and it’ll give the employer address, and then sometimes it will also do the address of the person that’s there. And, as I said before, the employer. Now, on smaller towns and hamlets, please this is important here, on smaller towns and hamlets, you may find them bundled in to a county-wide directory, okay. Like this one. This is the directory for Lewis County, New York. Lewis County is all the way up near Watertown Canadian border, on the, one side of the Adirondacks, it’s where my family settled in 1830, after the Erie Canal was built. My family no, they were not smart, they didn’t go to Ohio like everyone else did. They decided to go north, to Lewis County. Hamlets, hamlets are usually, a hamlet is, it’s not a legal entity, it’s not a village, it’s not a town, it’s very small, no government, no board, no mayor, so it’s what we would call in Illinois now, an unincorporated township, or unincorporated village. So basically, they’re not big enough. You know, I grew up near one called, well, the other thing you should know, everyone knows the Woodstock festival. I grew up 10 miles from there. And so that, that area there was actually Bethel, was at that point not even a town. That’s why Woodstock happened there, ’cause there were no zoning laws. That’s why Max Yasgur said oh, here, I’m going to donate my farm. Meanwhile, in Woodstock New York, which was a few miles over in Ulster, bigger town, formal zoning board and they said no, we don’t want you dirty hippies here, you know, and that’s what happened. So, but yeah, so any of those small towns, look for a bigger county directory. Now you’ll never know what you’re going to find in the city directory. The important thing is to remember every publisher had its own method of listing information. There are major publishers that did every directory, maybe for a same state, or all over the country. One of the biggest names is Polk, p-o-l-k. It’s a publisher. Now, I have found this, this last one not only did I find out that someone was listed as a widow, it would say her husband John died last year, of, you know, consumption. I mean, the person would even go so far to do that information. So you will find clues like that. Here’s one. We’re going to, I can’t blow this up more, but this is basically what we’re looking at here. Let me see if I can, where is this? Let me see if I can go to the documents cell. Uh, please help me. Yes, this is from a site called the HathiTrust, h-a-t-h-i. It’s a free digital library. And here, this is a bigger screen on it, and so this gives you an idea of the information that you can find there. So it’ll say here, this is Harry Abelovitz, he’s a clerk, his home address is 816 North 3rd Street, wherever this is. This is in Wilmington, North Carolina, okay. And then the year, what is the year? We need to find a 1919 to 1920, okay. So that’s how you read these. What would this be? Matilda Aaron, domestic, home 805 North 6th. And why do you think she has an asterisk? She’s a colored person. This is North Carolina. So you’ll see this, now how would you know this? We’ll get to that in a minute. Every directory has a list of abbreviations, okay. So this is one that I figured out. So, but this is how you read these things. So dried goods, let’s see if we can find one here. Here’s a Miss Sadie Abrams. So she’s unmarried, home 705 North 3rd. The other thing that you might want to do, you notice how this is alphabetic? Go and connect the addresses. So the thing is someone else might be living at 705 North 3rd. That becomes your fan club. In fact yes, you just pointed it, it’s right here. Yeah, Abrams. Shoemaker at 705 North 3rd, okay. So now, it doesn’t say how they’re related, so yeah, a lot of times, they have the same family name. That’s why, but also, what if they didn’t have the same family name? You’re going to have to go and do the research on this. So again, on this one, you can see they list businesses as well. Let’s look around a little bit more. There’s always an advertisement on every page, okay. So and there’s even some on the side. You thought that websites were bad, right, with pop-ups? Yeah, this is always here and down at the bottom, there it is. So, and George W Huggins Jewelers, you have to understand, this is how these were paid for. Most of these guides were given away for free. Okay, sometimes you had to buy the bigger ones for the city of Chicago and things like that, but these were given away for free, and they had to be paid for somehow to do that. So, let’s get back to our previous show here. There we go, great. Here’s another one, for Newton, Massachusetts. And did you notice here, there are the abbreviations. Let me see if I can get to this one. I had to pull these from a variety of sources. Now I do want to say, MyHeritage does have some great city directories, okay. They have a good collection. And this one is from archive.org, which you know is maybe the Wayback Machine, or internet archive. I’m going to go ahead and zoom in on this. Oh, I don’t want to turn the page. Thank you. Here we go. They all have their own tools. Okay. Here we go. Let me see if I can zoom up here. Sorry. Okay. Trying to get rid of this bar here. Hold on. Doesn’t always work when you’re using… You know, the… Know what we’re going to do? We’re going to go back. It obviously has advanced way too far here. Let me go back and pull this up again. Sorry. There we go. Come on, guys. Perfect. Trying to get to the original document so I can show you it a bit larger, but this is what I was talking about in terms of the abbreviations. They’re usually at the top, or at the beginning part. You may have to page through many, many different ads here. Let me go to one page. Ah, that’s better. Okay, so I’m going to go to the next page over. There we go. There’s the directory. And we’re going to come up here. And I’m going to… Yeah, that was a lot of work. Okay, so it’s saying here abbreviations, and you may not be able to read it. It will say av for avenue, B for Boston, bd or b for boards. If someone is boarding, they’re not related. That’s a common abbreviation. CH for Chestnut Hill, so it’s got its own abbreviations for neighborhoods. ct for court, h for house, Nv for Newtonville, opp, o-p-p meaning opposite. So they’ll say the address is opposite this store or this road. After the name of a street the word street is omitted. The initials on the right hand margin denote the Post Office address. So that’s there talking about these different towns. But let’s look closely at this one. What do we see already here? Catherine Abbott, widow of Hollis E, she boards at 18 Copely, see? That’s how you read that, okay. That’s how you read that. Here, Curtis, so Curtis Abbott is a lawyer. He’s at 623 Tremont building B, his home is 11 Claflin Place, okay. So they’re all going to be kind of different in terms of how they work, how these documents work. But it helps if you’re at the top, to see what the abbreviations are. Yes, in the back? Yes. This is a great one, yes, and I was going to get to that. So, yeah I will. Yeah, so someone has just pointed out, we’re looking at this entry right above Curtis Abbott, you notice how it says Clarence H removed from city? This is a very New England term. It doesn’t mean he was forcibly removed. It means he left the city. So, he was listed in last year’s directory. This year, he’s gone. That’s a great clue, isn’t it? So, what’s that, he’s not dead. No, he’s not dead. He wasn’t removed in a box. No, but he was removed, okay. So, but yeah. And that’s a very common New England term. Has anyone heard of the calling out lists? New England would post a warning list in colonial times, when a family was not welcome, ’cause they couldn’t be supported. So would warn all the other towns not to harbor this family, because, you know, so they used different terminology in New England, so that whole removed from city. Sometimes you will also see something that says removed to Boston, or removed to Philadelphia. It depends on the directory, it really does. How was it used? I mean basically, there was, so the question is, how were these used? How would the townspeople use this? Well the townspeople felt they had a right to know who their neighbors were. I mean, privacy laws were very different back then. So you didn’t mostly have a choice whether you were in the directory or not. But the thing is, it was all based on these small towns, worked on these networks of relationships, you know. And so that’s, that’s, it was information. They felt this was public information, and that there was a right to know. And that’s what they used these for. You’re right, you would think, well what was the use? There’s no telephone. Right, exactly. Although, as you pointed out, the gentleman said they’re not listing all the lawyers. In the back of this though, all the lawyers are listed on a separate page. All the bankers are listed on a separate page, ’cause this is, remember is usually a business directory. Also, this would give me a mailing address for someone. You know, if I need to invite ’em to a party or something. Here’s another one. You know, if I need to invite them to a party or something. Here’s another one. This one is a two-column, it’s from Oklahoma. And it’s got a lot of the same detailed information. Usually, the wife’s name on this one is in parenthesis. So the man is listed, then it will have his wife’s name, and then give the information. I don’t have an enlargeable version of this, so. Right, here’s Cincinnati. This is one from 1840s. So it will say, Wrench Isaac, he’s from England! Musician, resident, north-south 7th, probably, now that’s odd. So, it could be boulevard, it’s not going to be boards. Yeah, exactly, Plum and Western R. So the other one is right here, second one. M Burr Wright, he came from New Jersey, that’s why I love this type of directory. It tells you where they moved from, okay. Understand that 1830 Cincinnati was the wild, wild West. I mean, it really was. So he’s an MD, I guess he’s proficient in math, medicine and therapeutics from Ohio Medical College, or Professor could be. Resident north-south 6th boulevard Main and Walnut. Between, that’s what it is, see! So I don’t have, that’s great, it’s not boulevard, it’s between. I don’t have the abbreviations for this one. But, yeah, I mean they all have their different, what’s that? Yeah, some of them say between, it’s crazy, you know. And you will find that. You will find that it is different, even within the same. So here, we have a Mrs Charlotte Wright. And she’s, I don’t know what, I’d have to see what res, it could be resident, it could be resides, could be anything like that. Let’s look at the next, so the basic elements, let’s cover, break it down into what the basic elements are. They all carry the same basic information, but you’re going to get different variations. Different publishers use different formats, but even the same publisher, if he did two different towns, the town might have a way that it wants its format, its abbreviations, et cetera. This is for actually my family, up in Lowville, New York. So here we have, this is great. Charles B Austin, and his wife was, her name was Bideffie E, and it gives her maiden name. How sweet is that? Okay, stationary engineer, employee of W D Sheley & Son, home Trinity Avenue. Back then, there were no house numbers in Lowville. It basically, you just lived on the street. George Austin, wife Etta, her maiden name Henry. Employee of Lowville Burial Casket Company, Trinity Avenue. This one right here is my second great grandfather, Ira Austin and his wife, Hannah. She was born a Dence. Not a dunce, a Dence. They are on road 16. They were farmers. And also breeder of registered Guernsey cattle, has four heads of Guernsey cattle, grower of strawberries and has 14 cows. I mean, how great is that? I mean, this is small town stuff, and these are the types of clues. Look at the last one. Mary Austin, school teacher, boards with her parents, Trinity Avenue. So I’d have to figure out who’s on Trinity Avenue, looks like Charles Austin all the way up at the top, and it’s probably you know, and this one says Margaret Austin, Post Office Lowville, road 16, daughter of Ira, and she’s a stenographer. Someone that types, yeah, typist, uh yeah. Yeah, yeah, shorthand, yeah, so, great. So, this is how I broke it down. Charles Blodget Austin was my third great uncle. He was the brother of my second great grandfather, William Dence Austin. So, and he’s shown as married to Bideffie McHale. Occupation, so these are all the things that I’m writing down in my research, in my transcript. And they’re going to be used as clues later on. How long did they live at Trinity Avenue? Is the house still standing? Can I get a photo of the house? I mean, I want to put some flesh on the bones of my ancestors. Some directories explain the format listing, as I said, at the beginning. This one, it goes through and it says, the name of individual firm followed by the wife’s name, figures, business, a star placed before name indicates that they’re an advertiser in the directory. So that way, you know, you know, who paid for the directory. Names in capitals are those who have kindly given their patronage to this work and without whose aid its publication would have been impossible. So, someone who donated money, not necessarily an advertiser. So sometimes these went by subscription. Where, basically, you would be sold the book before it came out and then you would get the copy hopefully the following year. You ever seen the movie, Paper Moon? Remember they did that with the Bibles, that was so funny. They would sell Bibles to widows and they would just take the money and never deliver the Bible. But these were delivered, you know. But they all have their rules. Yeah, in this one, is says, “the classification by business “will be found before the alphabetical “arrangement of the names. “Where residence is omitted after business location.” Oh, here, this is that North Carolina one. Names marked asterisk are those of colored persons. I have to say though, at least they’re in the directory. Many directories would not carry colored people or people of color, you know. So this is, as much as you know, it’s there that way, this is actually a way of identifying those ancestors. Here’s another one. And so here, this one goes by the As. Archibald, or Aachbild Duff, milk, home 5th and C 18th. All these different ones here. And so you have to know basically, the lingo. It’s a little bit different on this one. And that is why sometimes in the directory, that one is just from Brooklyn, New York, they came up with this at the end of the directory. It’s a street and avenue listing, going alphabetically, and basically what the cross streets would be for that. So, that’s what it would be. So here, if I can enlarge this, no I can’t, this one will break down and it’ll say 5th Place, North 4th, and basically what the numbers are for the residences, where the cross streets are. In a way I’ve used these in conjunction with the numeration maps, for doing census work. Sometimes when I can’t find my ancestor on the census. So what about the abbreviations? There’s no set. You have to consult the directory itself. You have to sort of be a little bit smart about it. This is the one from 1923 in Chicago. Look at all those abbreviations. Just crazy. Now in 1923, this city was well over a million people, I believe, in population. And so, but this is a little bit overkill if you ask me. Okay, for abbreviations. Even with abbreviations that are spelled out, some are just assumed. Some people assume that you know what the abbreviation is, like bds, and widow, or W, or WD, and you’re just going to have to figure it out on your own. It’s not listed. Here’s one from, this is Flint, Michigan, I believe, 1918. So auto workers, Ernest Ackerman, boards 309, yeah and so, and he’s married, so I don’t know whether they’re both boarding there, or whether they’re separated. Here’s one that says widow, Henry G. So Freda Ackerman and all of this information here. So this is standard, standard stuff. Don’t make assumptions about abbreviations though. Hy, is it highway, or Henry? My name in a lot of directories is abbreviated Tho, or Thos period, for Thomas. ‘Cause keep in mind, they wanted to save space and get all those advertisements in. So, and here, abbreviations for street names. Abbreviations for residences outside of Chicago. So if it was, someone just said Lake Forest, it would be LK period F period. That would tell you that maybe they’d moved to Lake Forest, or they lived in Lake Forest but they worked in the city, they had a business in the city. And look, at the bottom, they have abbreviations for given names. William would be Wm. Henry would be Hy, you know. So, every directory is different. This site, GenealogyInTime magazine, has the best listing of abbreviations for directories. It’s a link in the handout. Do you want that slide again? Let me go back to it, hold on. There you go, if you want to take a photo of it. And basically, it’s called GenealogyInTime Magazine. They have the best maintained list of overall abbreviations for directories. Let me see if we can go back to that site now. There it is. And if I go down here. Yeah. These are the As, the Bs, the Cs, I mean, he’s done a great job with all of this. So this is, guess where this is? In my toolbox! Right? This is one of those resources that’s in my toolbox. Because, I mean, not going to scramble and say what was the name of that site and where am I going to find it? I’m always going to have it available. So, to do that. So let’s get back here. Advertisements and why they matter. So as you work with these directories, you might get tired of scrolling through the advertisements. But this is why they’re important to your research. They give you a sense of how successful was the town. What types of businesses, what industries was your ancestor’s town known for? Now Lowville was known for timber, and cheese. In fact, AMF still makes bowling pins in Lowville, New York and Kraft still makes cream cheese up in Lowville, New York. But they also did a lot of furniture. They did a lot of caskets and coffins. So I got a sense. Gloversville, where my family lived as well, in another county, was all leather tanneries and it made 90% of the women’s gloves in the United States in 1900. That was the industry in Gloversville, that’s why we named that way. Here, apothecary. Here’s one. Basically, it’s telling you, you know, how long he’s been in business, where he’s located. You know, using chemicals of the finest quality. Physicians’ prescriptions dispensed. Calls during the night answered by experienced persons only. On Sundays a competent person will be in attendance at all hours. And it gives basically how they’re running their business. So, and it says at the end, we will demonstrate the fact that our goods can be bought as low in Newton, as in Boston and the expense of carriage saved to the consumer. Meaning, what it would cost you to drive, to ride to Boston, to do that. Anyone know, do you know what the FAN club concept is? If you’re not familiar with it, FAN stands for Friends Associates and Neighbors. Elizabeth Shown Mills came up with the term, and this means if they’re not blood relatives. But it’s the people, the social circle that your family hung out with. That’s really, really important. Okay, because you can get clues that way, in terms of not only how they lived, but who they may have married. So here, this again, going back to Lowville, this would tell me basically, who in Lowville that my family probably knew. Here, this is my third great grandfather, I think, yeah, this is Ira Junior. He was part of Austin and Boyce, it’s down at the bottom, harnesses. And his home was on Dayan Street, 28 Dayan, okay. So I could go ahead and do that. And then what I found later in the directory is an ad for his business, and what he sold. He was making trunks and saddles, valises, there’s a term you don’t see anymore, bridles. And basically, this is an ad for his business. So I learned more about his business. I could go and I look, see when the business existed. Here’s another one. Here’s Boyce. I went and I looked for Boyce. Notice that Boyce is in all caps. That’s your advertisers. That’s how this directory worked. If you had a paid advertisement, your name was in all caps. So this is S C Boyce, harness, but look at where the home is. 26 Dayan, that means they lived next to each other. Right, my ancestor was 28 Dayan. So the houses are next together and I bet you that the business was right there as well. They probably had it out in the back somewhere. There is, here, explanations on the residence directory. bds, boards, near, corner, north, south, east, west. The word street is inferred, okay. And names and advertisers and subscribers in the book are in small capitals, so that’s why that stands out. Here’s another one, there’s Brigham S. 14 Shady Avenue. Okay. So what was the price of the Lowville 1867 directory? And where could this information be found? This is where you would find it. Usually it’s in the front page on the cover. Or it could be on the insert. And so it was J C Kimball was a compiler and publisher. This was done in Watertown, which is the largest city nearby. By Lyttle, Hanford & Company and the price was a dollar fifty. So this is actually sold, this was not given away for free. A dollar fifty, in 1867 was quite a bit. How would I find that out? Wolfram Alpha. I’d go and I’d use that and say historical money, what was the price there? Now, the other thing that directories are great for is, I’m a big fan of timelines. When I have something I can’t solve for my research, I’m looking for gaps. That’s why the city directories are really important. If you have access to successive years of directories, you can go through and see where your family lives, where did they move? Do they have a business? My second great grandfather lost his butcher business in 1903, in Lowville New York. Did you know there was a financial panic in the US in 1903? Very bad. Lot of people, lot of bankruptcies. It was almost as equal to the Great Depression. And so by 1905, he’s living in the Bronx, working in a laundromat. And, but the thing is, I was able to prove that he did not have a business, he went into the butcher business, and then he lost the business, all through the city directories. And here’s another one though, as I said before, it gives me an idea of Ira Austin and his wife Hannah, and what they owned. Again, all you know, employment and home. And so what I did, is I created a timeline here, on this site, it’s a site called Timetoast. T-i-m-e t-o– yeah, there it is. Let me pull it up. It’s a free site. It allows you to build these, oh and I have to sign in. Bane of my existence. And the challenge is remembering the password. Right up here. I have a system. I have a system. So, but the thing is, I don’t want to add this now. So what you can do, is you can build these timelines with Timetoast, and you can add them in here, and I believe this is the one that I built, based on the city directory. You can import images. Come on, work your magic. Where are we, down at the bottom. Yeah, see? I can build a timeline here, I start with the 1895 directory. And I have an 1900 entry on the census, so I need to know what’s going on in those successive years. So I’ll go and I’ll look at city directories. So, Timetoast is the name of the product. It’s free. T-i-m-e t-o-s-t dot com. And here, here’s another one. This is, this is William Austin, who had the butcher shop. He married Catherine O’Keefe. He dealt in fresh and salt meats, lard, ham, sausages, oysters and poultry and he– oh what did you do? Oh, you went to the document, never mind. There it is. And so also, the business is at State, the corner of Dayan, and it says h Dayan. His home was on Dayan, and the business was on the corner of State and Dayan. Great. So some tips and tricks for gathering these clues. I always search, the first thing I do is I search for my surname. Search for variations, but I search for the surname before I do anything. I don’t do the full name. And usually, most of these are just on PDFs or scannable, you know, searchable images. Then I look for images by surname. So it’s alphabetic, so I will go through the whole directory page by page, to make sure that something didn’t get misspelled, that maybe they have businesses in the back and maybe they weren’t listed there. Also, very important, what’s the date of the directory? This is why it’s important. Did you see that one was 1867? When do you think it was compiled? 1866. You’re dealing with information that’s already a year old. Keep that in mind. So it’s not entirely accurate. It’s a reflection of what it was in the year before, okay. We deal with the same thing in the census. People don’t realize yes, your family was enumerated on April 23rd 1940, but it was a depiction of April 1st 1940. But this one, even more so. It’s always a year old. Don’t ignore the table of contents. Read the TOC. Find out what else is in that document. Search by address. Now this is easier with the digital version. If you get a digital version, then go ahead and search by address. Otherwise, you’re going to have to track addresses. And go ahead and say okay, who else lived around them? Who was part of their FAN club? Address changes. In the US, some cities changed their street grid. Chicago did in 1909. So if you’re going to presently go to Google Maps, and look up an address for an ancestor in 1908, you’re not going to find it. So you need to figure out what the new name, what the new street is, or what the new number is. And there are ways to do that. There are various sites that do that. Always understand the abbreviations. And if you can’t find a small town directory, what do you do? You go to the county-wide directory. There are very few state directories. I don’t know of any state directories, just professional. But it would be by county. And then I always go to Google Maps for the street view. I want to see, is the building still there? I found out that my ninth great grandfather’s stone house built in 1699 is still standing in New Paltz, New York. So, yeah, yeah, and my French homed there. No one’s living there, but it’s a historic home and I didn’t even know it still existed. So some of the best resources, want you to know that MyHeritage does have some great directories, especially US directory, and UK directories. So they’re well worth investigating there. The other one also is that the company that starts with an A, Ancestry, they go 1822 to 1995. These are all listed in the handout by the way. Online historical directories. I’m going to point this out, because this is a free site, that a woman from Spokane, Washington, Marion Robbins, built on Google sites. And what she does, is she has laid out, if I go here to United States, she has laid out by state, now I’m going to go to Illinois, all the city directories, and by county, so I’m going to Cook County. And then she comes down here and she shows them, and look at all of these city directories. And these are online. And they’re free. Most of them are free. So, so the name of the site is called Online Historical Directories. So, thank you for the time reminder Daniel. There’s also, FamilySearch Wiki has a very good article on US directories, that’s up there as well. They explain how they work and they have links to all of them. And that is it. I’m probably sure I put you to sleep, but I hope you have a little better knowledge now on city directories, okay. Questions, please. Also I have my business card up here, please make sure you take that before you go. Sometimes, questions don’t come to us until like a day later, and that’s why you can email me. So, question right here. Sure. (someone asks a question) Okay, very good, so Logan Kleinwaks, okay. Okay, then, okay, then I’ll add that, yep. That would be a great resource, that would be perfect. Yeah, I mean the prevalence is US has a lot, UK has a lot, every country had directories, they really did, so, yeah. Other question? Go ahead, yeah, you’re welcome. Other questions? I have a question.
Sure, yeah. You mentioned that money converted through history. Yes, yeah, so that would be so, the money conversion is going to be Wolfram Alpha, I’m sorry. We’ll put it on the stream in a second. It’s actually right here. This one. Go there. Okay. Okay. And we’ll show, remember we said that the price of the directory was a dollar fifty in 1867? Again, I’m going to come over here to Wolfram Alpha, and I’m going to use this to calculate the historical value of money, so oops. Where do we go? Okay. So what I would do here, is I would put 1867. A dollar sign, fifty, oops. Put the comma. ‘Cause I can’t see. And we come down here and where is it? Yeah, I can’t see it. There it is. $26.81 and it also shows you the rate of inflation between then and now. So basically, that tells you roughly how much of an expenditure it was. So, what was the other question Daniel, online? There are more online, so. Let’s see, online, uh, we have reverse directories, how about them? Reverse directories, Let’s see, online, we have reverse Basically, I found very few where they were listed by address, you know, in reverse. The best thing is to use a digital version of a conventional directory that’s alphabetic. But there are very few that list them by street. They’re far and few between. They’re really hard to find, so. And the other question is here from the audience. Okay. Other questions from there. See I think (mumbles). Do directories contain maps? Some directories do contain a map. It would be very rudimentary. But yeah, I’ve seen that in some of them, especially small towns. And probably this is more a local question, there are directories–
Directories, yes. For (mumbles). Yes. Yes, and yes there are plenty of, and the Eastern genealogy with (mumbles) has a few posted on the website. MyHeritage also has a few.
Okay. And I can already tell you that we’re working on a big load of Israel and rest of the world directories, to come up to MyHeritage.
That’s great, that’s great. Okay. Any other questions? A lot of comments I see here. But no, no more questions. Okay. People know that they will get their handout. The email. So if that will be it. So when’s our next one? So thank you very much, Thomas. (clapping) And I would like also to thank all of you attending this webinar from any place in the world, thank you for being with here, uh, here with us today. And we will just go to our next webinar in just a few minutes. So thank you very much and enjoy the rest of your day.

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